Rapid Stroke Treatment
A stroke occurs when a blockage in an artery prevents blood from reaching cells in the brain or an artery ruptures inside/outside the brain, causing a hemorrhage.Â Each year more than 795,000 Americans suffer a stroke, causing one out of every 20 deaths in this country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Not only is stroke the fifth-leading cause of death in the U.S., it is also the leading cause of adult disability.
Stroke should be treated with the same urgency as a heart attack.Â The video below describes strokeÂ warning signs and how the team at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± cares for stroke patients.
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Treating Stroke at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ±
Medical professionals at the Comprehensive Stroke Center at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± provide fast and efficient stroke care toÂ help patients reach a better outcome after suffering a stroke emergency. They are recognized as leaders in stroke care through their efforts in promoting stroke prevention and practicing quality stroke treatment.
In addition, the Acute Rehabilitation Team at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± offersÂ stroke rehabilitation servicesÂ to help patients on their path to recovery after a stroke.
Stroke Care on Washington's Top News (WTOP)
Dimitri Sigounas, MD, and Christopher Leon Guerrero, MD, discuss how stroke is treated at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ±.
Ischemic strokes accountÂ for 80 percent of all strokes suffered. They are caused when blood vessels becomeÂ clogged. Some ischemic strokes are preceded by stroke-like symptoms called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) that canÂ occur months before the stroke. AlsoÂ calledÂ a warning stroke, aÂ TIA is caused by a temporary blockage of a blood vessel. TIA symptoms, which are similar to those of a stroke,Â come on quicklyÂ and improve within 10 to 20 minutes. The loss of vision in a TIA may be described as a feeling that a shade is being pulled down over your eyes. TIAs typically do not cause long-lasting damage to the brain.Â
The clot-dissolving medicine calledÂ tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)Â is the drug of choice for ischemic stroke.Â If anÂ ischemicÂ stroke is diagnosed within three hours of the start of symptoms,Â the administration ofÂ tPA intravenouslyÂ can increase a patient'sÂ chances of survival and recovery. Knowing strokeÂ warning signs and getting to aÂ hospital quickly is critical forÂ tPA treatmentÂ to be successful.Â
If aÂ tPA infusionÂ does notÂ work, tPA and other clotÂ dissolving agents can be delivered directly to the area of blockage using an angiogram. During this process, aÂ catheter andÂ X-ray guidance areÂ used to take images of the blood vessels in the neck and brain. The blockageÂ can also potentially be removed with fine-grasping instruments or the blocked vessel can be re-opened with stents.
First in The District with RAPID CT Perfusion Software
The RAPID CT Perfusion software is a class of automated brain imaging software that enables doctors to quickly visualize reductions in blood flow to the brain and early signs of brain injury. GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± is the first in the District to have this software.
Ischemic Stroke Volumes and Performance
2018 Stroke Volumes
|Â Patient Type||Â # of Admissions|
|Â Ischemic Stroke||Â 430|
|Â Intracerebral Hemorrhage||Â 89|
|Â Subarachnoid Hemorrhage||Â 41|
|Â Transient Ischemic Attack||Â 108|
|Â TOTAL||Â 668|
2018 GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± Performance Measures AHA/ASA Get with the Guidelines
|Â Stroke Performance Measures||Â Compliance Rate *|
|Â Venous Thromboembolism ProphylaxisÂ||Â 98%|
|Â Discharge on AntithromboticÂ Therapy||Â 100%|
|Â Anticoagulant Therapy at Discharge for Afib||Â 94%|
|Â IV Alteplase Given Within 3 Hours for Acute Stroke||Â 100%|
|Â Antithrombotic Prescribed by ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± Day 2||Â 96%|
|Â StatinÂ Prescribed at Discharge||Â 99%|
|Â Stroke Education||Â 96%|
|Â Assessed for Rehabilitation||Â 99%|
* National Target Benchmark is above 90% Compliance.
2018 GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± Stroke Outcomes
|Â Overall Hemorrhagic Transformation||Â 4%|
|Â Intravenous Thrombolytic (IV Alteplase) Therapy Only||Â 3%|
|Â Intra-arterial (IA) Thrombolytic Therapy or Mechanical Endovascular Therapy||Â 5%|
Joint Commission Comprehensive Measure:
GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± is proud to perform discharge follow-up with more than 90 percentÂ of its stroke patients 90 days after they leave the hospital. This metric is better than the national average when compared with other academic hospitals.
Fewer strokesÂ are categorized as hemorrhagic, whichÂ occur whenÂ weakened blood vesselsÂ inside the brain rupture (such asÂ a tangle of defective blood vessels and capillaries calledÂ arteriovenous malformations (AVMs))Â or when an aneurysm (a thin spot on an artery wall)Â at the base of the brain bursts. Every year, an estimated 30,000 people in the United States experience a ruptured cerebral aneurysm according to theÂ American Association of Neurological Surgeons.Â
Symptoms more specific to hemorrhagicÂ stroke include headache, nausea and vomiting, neck stiffness, seizures, sudden changes in mental state and lethargy. Hemorrhagic strokes usually occur in the daytime and during physical activity. The symptoms typically begin very suddenly and evolve over several hours.Â
Initial treatment of a hemorrhagic stroke is difficult. Efforts are made to control bleeding, reduce pressure in the brainÂ and stabilize vital signs, especially blood pressure. There are few medications available to treat hemorrhagic stroke. The Comprehensive Stroke Center at GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ±Â offersÂ hemorrhagic stroke patients with options includingÂ surgery, endovascular treatment and diagnostic neuroangiography.Â
Surgery can be used if a large amount of bleeding has occurred and the patient is rapidly getting worse. Depending on the location of the aneurysm and a patient's condition following the stroke, surgery may not be an option. Surgery can involve clipping the aneurysm, surgical resection of AVMs and carotid endarterectomies.
Treats an aneurysm by placing a clip across its neck or origin to prevent filling of the aneurysm.
Surgical ResectionÂ of AVMs
Prevents further bleeding by removing the tangle of defective blood vessels and capillaries.
Opens a carotid artery blockage and cleans out the debris narrowing of the vessel.
Another option is sealing the aneurysm with coils delivered through the angiogram technique. This is the less invasive option, but is not yet suitable for all aneurysms. Methods include:
Treats an aneurysm by packing the weakened area of the ballooning vessel with small coils that fill the space and prevent bleeding.
EndovascularÂ Embolization of AVM
Injects a small amount of glue-like material that seals off the abnormal connection between vessels.
EndovascularÂ Stenting of Carotid Artery Occlusions
Uses a metal mesh tube to re-establish normal blood flow to the brain and is deployed through a catheter.
An advanced imaging technique where an interventional radiologist accesses neck and brain vessels through an artery in the groin. This diagnostic technique allows precise mapping of brain arteries and problem areas.
Awards and Accreditation
GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ± is designated a Comprehensive Stroke Center by The Joint Commission and American Heart Association.Â
GW ¸»Ó®˛ĘĆ±Â has received the 2020Â American Heart AssociationÂ®/American Stroke Associationâ€™sÂ® Get With The GuidelinesÂ®-Stroke Gold Plus, Target: Stroke Elite, andÂ Target: Type 2 Diabetes Honor Roll award. The award is the highest stroke recognition possible.
Podcast: Stroke: F.A.S.T. Action Could Save a LifeÂ
Kathleen Burger, DO, discusses risk factors for the two major types of stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and smoking.
Podcast: Stroke Care: Treatment and Technology Update
Dimitri Sigounas, MD, discusses the new technologies surrounding stroke recognition and treatment, including the future development of portable devices that could assess stroke type and severity before the patient even arrives at the hospital.